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Greenhouse Gas Emissions Posts


GOVERNOR SIGNS SWEEPING CLIMATE CHANGE BILL, SENATE BILL 32, INTO LAW

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016

Governor Jerry Brown signed Senate Bill (S.B.) 32, which will extend the State’s greenhouse gas targets from 2020 to 2030. The legislation builds on Assembly Bill (A.B.) 32, the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which required California to reduce greenhouse gas levels to 1990-era levels by 2020. Under S.B. 32, the State will be required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030.

S.B. 32 codifies the interim 2030 greenhouse gas target included in the Executive Order (B-30-15) issued by Governor Brown on April 29, 2015. The interim target is intended to ensure California meets its target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.  The Assembly passed the bill with only one vote to spare during a largely party-line vote.

Notably, to help garner the required votes, S.B. 32 was amended to provide that it would only become operative if A.B. 197 was also enacted. A.B. 197, which was passed by the Legislature by a much less narrow vote than S.B. 32, increases legislative oversight of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) by putting two legislators on CARB as nonvoting members and requiring CARB to report annually to a newly created joint legislative committee on climate change policies. It also directs CARB to prioritize emissions rules and regulations that limit economic impact on the State’s disadvantaged communities and regions reliant on agriculture.  S.B. 32 and A.B. 197 were approved by Governor Brown on September 8, 2016, and will become effective on January 1, 2017.

FIRST APPELLATE DISTRICT UPHOLDS MTC AND ABAG’S APPROVAL OF PLAN BAY AREA

Wednesday, July 6th, 2016

In a recently published opinion, Bay Area Citizens v. Association of Bay Area Governments, 2016 Cal. App. LEXIS 531, the First Appellate District affirmed the trial court’s judgment and upheld the approval of Plan Bay Area by the Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission (“MTC”) and the Association of Bay Area Governments (“ABAG”) (collectively, “Agencies”). Thomas Law Group represented the Agencies in successfully defending against the suit.

Plan Bay Area is the regional transportation plan and sustainable communities strategy for the nine-county Bay Area region, adopted by the Agencies pursuant to SB 375. It establishes a plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by reducing vehicle miles traveled through combined land use and transportation strategies. Bay Area Citizens (“Citizens”) filed a petition in August 2013, challenging certification of the environmental impact report (“EIR”) prepared for Plan Bay Area under the requirements of the California Environmental Quality Act.

Citizens’ primary contention was that the Agencies failed to consider greenhouse gas emission reductions expected from existing statewide mandates, such as clean car and low carbon fuel standards. Due to this omission, Citizens contended that the Agencies unnecessarily imposed “draconian” high-density land use patterns to reduce vehicle miles traveled (“VMT”) to satisfy the California Air Resources Board’s (“CARB”) greenhouse gas emissions targets. The trial court rejected Citizens’ argument, holding that reliance on the statewide mandates to meet CARB’s targets under SB 375 was expressly prohibited by the legislation and would constitute improper double-counting of greenhouse gas emissions reductions.

The appellate court also rejected Citizens’ argument, calling its interpretation of SB 375 “absurd.” The court held that Citizens’ interpretation effectively made SB 375 superfluous because it would allow the Agencies to rely on reductions already expected from the statewide mandates without achieving additional SB 375 emission reductions through land use and transportation strategies. Pointing to CARB’s interpretation – that SB 375 calls for such strategies in addition to emissions reductions expected from the statewide mandates – the court concluded that Citizens’ interpretation was incorrect.

Turning to Citizens’ EIR contentions, the court found that because the Agencies properly interpreted the requirements of SB 375, Citizens’ challenge of Plan Bay Area’s EIR objectives was without merit. The court similarly rejected Citizens’ alternatives analysis arguments. Specifically, the court found that the “no project” alternative appropriately captured the continuation of existing regional policy. With regard to the Citizens’ proposed alternative, the court found that many of the aspects of the Citizens’ alternative were already captured in the other alternatives considered by the Agencies. Moreover, because the Citizens’ proposed alternative double-counted statewide emissions mandates, it was not feasible in light of the emission reduction requirements of SB 375.

Key Point: The court affirmed that metropolitan planning organizations may not rely on emissions reductions expected from pre-existing statewide mandates in order to meet CARB’s regional greenhouse gas emissions targets when preparing plans required under SB 375.

SUPREME COURT DELAYS DEVELOPMENT OF NEWHALL RANCH PROJECT

Tuesday, December 15th, 2015

On November 30, 2015, the Supreme Court issued its decision in Center for Biological Diversity v. California Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2015 Cal. LEXIS 1043, addressing Newhall Ranch, a proposed 12,000 acre development project. The Newhall Ranch Specific Plan area, located in northwestern Los Angeles County in a portion of the Santa Clara River Valley, was first analyzed and approved by Los Angeles County in 2003. In 2010, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) certified an environmental impact report/environmental impact statement (EIR/EIS), approved a resource management plan, adopted a conservation plan and a streambed alteration agreement, and issued incidental take permits necessary to implement the Specific Plan previously approved by the County. CDFW’s approvals were subsequently challenged under CEQA by a coalition of conservation groups.

While the Los Angeles County Superior Court granted plaintiffs’ petition for writ of mandate on several grounds, the Second District Court of Appeal reversed on all issues and directed the trial court to enter judgment in favor of CDFW. On review, the Supreme Court considered three issues and addressed, for the first time, what lead agencies must do to sufficiently analyze greenhouse gas emissions in an EIR.

Justice Werdegar filed the opinion for the five-justice majority, with Justice Corrigan writing a separate opinion concurring and dissenting and Justice Chin writing a lengthy dissent. This decision will have far reaching implications for future EIRs, but unfortunately, the majority opinion provides little clarity on how lead agencies will be able to survive legal challenges to greenhouse gas analyses.

The majority began its analysis by stating that the appropriate threshold for the EIR’s greenhouse gas emissions analysis was a question of law that the Court should review de novo because it pertains to “correct CEQA procedure.” This holding is in conflict with previous case law stating that a lead agency’s selection of a threshold is deferentially reviewed under the substantial evidence standard.

After conducting a de novo review, all of the justices agreed that lead agencies can use consistency with AB 32 as a threshold for determining the significance of greenhouse gas emissions under CEQA. The California Air Resources Board’s 2008 Scoping Plan implements AB 32 and sets forth a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in California to 1990 levels by cutting business-as-usual emission levels projected for 2020 by 29 percent. Plaintiffs argued that “business as usual” was an impermissible hypothetical future scenario under the Court’s prior ruling in Communities for a Better Environment v. South Coast Air Quality Management District (2010) 48 Cal.4th 310. The justices disagreed, holding that comparison to a “no development” scenario would be unrealistic as CEQA is not a population control measure and development would simply occur elsewhere if the project is not permitted.

But, as stated by Justice Corrigan in the dissent, the Court’s approval of this approach is “illusory” given the lack of deference provided to CDFW by the majority. The EIR/EIS analysis found that the project would result in a 31 percent reduction below business as usual estimates and that because this reduction exceeded the reductions needed to achieve the AB 32 goal, the greenhouse gas impact would be less than significant. Rather than deferring to the agency, the majority determined the analysis was inadequate because the EIR did not demonstrate “a quantitative equivalence between the Scoping Plan’s statewide comparison and the EIR’s own project-level comparison.”

The feasibility of providing evidence of this “quantitative equivalence” was questioned by both Justice Corrigan and Justice Chin, who would have found that CDFW did not abuse its discretion. According to the majority, in order to use compliance with the Scoping Plan as a threshold, the lead agency must “review the data behind the Scoping Plan’s business-as-usual model” and then “determine what level of reduction from business as usual a new land use development at the proposed location must contribute in order to comply with statewide goals.” Justice Corrigan opined that this technique would be of limited practical use. An additional consideration, noted by Justice Chin in the dissent, is that the majority “strongly hints” that the 2020 goal contained in the Scoping Plan will soon be insufficient and projects will need to meet a different goal established for a date beyond 2020. Thus, the usefulness of the Scoping Plan as a threshold is extremely limited with an upcoming (but unknown) expiration date.

The majority also took issue with the EIR’s use of the housing densities in the Santa Clarita Valley when determining the “business as usual” figure because those densities may not have been contemplated by the Scoping Plan. Justice Corrigan and Justice Chin agreed that this critique was “both hyper technical and insufficiently deferential.” Given the lack of agreement among experts about the level of greenhouse gas reduction needed at the project level, Justice Corrigan and Justice Chin would have resolved any reasonable doubts in favor of the agency’s decision.

The majority then offered two other approaches for conducting a greenhouse gas analysis, though it noted that it did not “guarantee that any of these approaches will be found to meet CEQA’s demands.” First, the lead agency can show consistency with the AB 32’s statewide goal by demonstrating compliance with regulatory programs designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for particular activities. Because the Scoping Plan does not propose statewide regulation of land use planning, the majority stated that local governments bear the primary burden of evaluating a land use project’s impact on greenhouse gas emissions. This can be achieved by referencing climate action plans or emission reduction plans that are developed at the local level, if the agency is fortunate enough to be considering a project in an area that has these plans in place. Second, a lead agency may rely on existing numerical thresholds of significance, like those created by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). However, since the BAAQMD thresholds were created specifically for the Bay Area, they will be of little use to projects that are being developed in other regions.

Next, the majority addressed the EIR/EIS’s mitigation measures that would allow U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel to rescue stranded stickleback, a fully protected species under Fish and Game Code section 5515, subdivision (b)(9) and an endangered species under the California Endangered Species Act. The majority held that the measures authorized a taking prohibited under subdivision (a) of section 5515. In particular, the majority focused on the provision of subdivision (a) that allows fully protected fish to be possessed for “scientific research,” the definition of which does not include actions taken as part of specified mitigation for a project. The majority viewed this provision as a stricter requirement for fully protected species that supersedes Fish and Game Code section 2061, which allows the trapping and transplantation for endangered species to move them out of harm’s way. Based on the legislative history and statutory language, the majority did find that Fish and Game Code section 5515, subdivision (a) allows the trapping and transportation of fully protected fish species as part of a species recovery program, as long as these actions are not specified as project mitigation measures. Justice Chin dissented and would have held that trapping and transplantation to protect a species is distinct from the permanent catch and capture of a “take.”

Finally, the majority held that under the circumstances of this case plaintiffs exhausted their administrative remedies regarding certain claims by raising them during a comment period on the final EIS initiated by the US Army Corps of Engineers under NEPA. The majority classified this as CDFW creating an “optional comment period” on the final EIR under CEQA. The majority noted, however, that this was not a larger holding about EIR/EISs but pertained to the circumstances here, in which CDFW participated in the post-final EIS/EIR process, included responses to the late comments, and made responsive changes to the final EIR it certified.

Both Justice Chin and Justice Corrigan expressed concern about the delay caused by the majority’s opinion, noting that the litigation had already delayed the project by 5 years with further delay to come. Justice Corrigan wondered whether CEQA was becoming “a moving target, impossible to satisfy” while Justice Chin noted that “California’s environmental laws are not intended to prevent development that is needed to accommodate the state’s growing population.” Because of the majority’s decision, the 58,000 people who will eventually be housed by the Newhall Ranch project will continue to wait for a project that has been thoroughly reviewed and fully-permitted for 5 years.

Key Point

A lead agency that uses a greenhouse gas emissions threshold that relies on the AB 32 Scoping Plan must include evidence in the record that similar projects with similar impacts were contemplated by the Scoping Plan. If that is not possible, which will be likely for many projects, the lead agency should use one of the other two methods provided by the Supreme Court for analyzing greenhouse gas emissions: demonstrating compliance with regulatory programs designed to reduce emissions or using a quantitative threshold. However, the Court noted that these methods were not guaranteed to be acceptable. Additionally, a mitigation plan for a project cannot include measures that call for the relocation of fully protected species.

SECOND APPELLATE DISTRICT FINDS INITIAL STUDY INADEQUATE FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROJECT IN LOS ANGELES

Thursday, November 12th, 2015

In an unpublished opinon, Friends of Highland Park v. City of L.A., 2015 Cal. App. Unpub. LEXIS 8002, the Second Appellate District reversed the trial court, holding that the initial study prepared by the City of Los Angeles for an affordable housing project in Highland Park was inadequate because the study lacked quantified greenhouse gas emission data and failed to report or analyze known soil contamination from a hazardous material.  Based on the initial study, the City had determined that the project would not have a significant effect on the environment and had approved the projected after adopting a mitigated negative declaration (MND).

As a preliminary matter, the Court held that Friends of Highland Park’s CEQA claims were not time-barred by the Subdivision Map Act (SMA), Government Code Section 66499.37, which requires challenges to subdivision map approvals to be filed within 90-days. The Court held the CEQA challenges at issue here do not fall within the SMA filing requirements because the adequacy of an initial study could not have been challenged under the SMA.

Turning to greenhouse gas emissions, the Court found the City’s initial study inadequate because it contained no evidence to support its claim that the potentially significant greenhouse gas emission impacts could be mitigated below a level of significance by using “low and non-VOC containing paints, sealants, adhesives, and solvents” during construction of the project. The Court relied in part on section 15064.4 of the CEQA Guidelines, which requires the use of “a model or methodology to quantify greenhouse gas emissions.” The Court held that the City had not selected a threshold for determining the significance of greenhouse gas emissions and thus there was “no vehicle for judicial review.”

The Court also found the initial study inadequate because it failed to address known lead contamination on the project site. An earlier development agreement acknowledged the existence of lead, but the initial study made no specific mention of lead contamination. However, adoption of the MND was subject to future environmental analyses, which were to be done prior to grading. The Court held that because the lead contamination was known at the time of approval, it should have been analyzed in the initial study.

The Court directed the City to set aside the MND and prepare a new initial study that complies with CEQA.

Executive Order Establishes New 2030 Mid-Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target

Friday, May 1st, 2015

On April 29, 2015, Governor Jerry Brown signed Executive Order B-30-15, which establishes “[a] new interim greenhouse gas emission reduction target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030…” (Executive Order B-30-15, ¶ 1, at http://gov.ca.gov/news.php?id=18938.)  The Executive Order requires the California Air Resources Board to express the 2030 target in terms of million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. (Id. at ¶ 3.)  The Executive Order also requires state agencies consider “full life-cycle cost accounting” when making future planning and investment decisions. (Id. at ¶ 6.)  To help state agencies incorporate climate change impacts into planning and investment decisions, the Executive order requires the Governor’s Office of Planning and Research to establish a technical, advisory group on the issue.

 On June 1, 2005, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-3-05, which among other goals established a target to achieve statewide GHG emissions that are 80 percent below the 1990 levels by 2050.  Governor Brown’s Executive Order B-30-15 does not replace Governor Schwarzenegger earlier 2050 target.  Rather, as explained in Executive Order B-30-15, this new interim target will “ensure California meets its target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.” (Ibid.)  Therefore, Executive Order B-30-15 provides support for the conclusion that a project found consistent with Executive Order B-30-15 is consistent with Executive Order S-3-05.

 In addition to establishing a new interim target, the Executive Order requires the California Natural Resources Agency (Resources Agency) to update the state’s climate adaptation strategy, Safeguarding California, every three years and to ensure that the strategy is fully implemented.  Among other requirements, the strategy must identify a lead agency or group of agencies that are responsible for adaptation efforts in, at least, the following sectors:  water, energy, transportation, public health, agriculture, emergency services, forestry, biodiversity and habitat, and ocean and coastal resources. (Executive Order B-30-15, ¶ 4.)  The lead agencies for each sector must, by September 2015, outline the actions in their sector that will be taken as identified in Safeguarding California and must report back to the Resources Agency on their success by June 2016. (Id., ¶ 5.) 

 Finally, the Executive Order also requires the state to take current and future climate change impacts into account in all infrastructure projects identified in the state’s Five-Year Infrastructure Plan. (Executive Order B-30-15, ¶ 8.) 

 Several bills are pending this legislative session that relate to future GHG targets for the state.  For example, AB 21 would require a statewide greenhouse gas emissions limit for 2030 to be established by 2018.  SB 32 would require a statewide GHG emission limit equivalent to Executive Order S-3-05’s goal of 80% below the 1990 level by 2050 and authorizes interim greenhouse gas emissions level targets to be established for 2030 and 2040.  AB 33 would establish a Climate Change Advisory Council with the duty to develop and analyze strategies to achieve the statewide GHG emissions limit as defined by AB 32 in 2006.  Thomas Law Group will continue to monitor if and how pending legislation is amended to respond to Executive Order B-30-15. 

 

California Supreme Court Grants Review of Decision Invalidating SANDAG Regional Transportation Plan

Wednesday, March 18th, 2015

On March 11, 2015, the California Supreme Court unanimously granted the San Diego Association of Governments’ (SANDAG) petition for review of the Fourth District Court of Appeal’s decision in Cleveland National Forest Foundation v. San Diego Association of Governments (2014) 180 Cal.Rptr.3d 548. A complete summary of the case is available here: http://www.thomaslaw.com/blog/appellate-court-requires-sandag-consider-executive-order-emissions-targets-regional-transportation-plan/, in which a majority of the three-judge panel held SANDAG was required to consider the consistency of its 2050 Regional Transportation Plan/Sustainable Communities Strategy with a 2005 executive order requiring a statewide reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

The issue on appeal is limited to the following: “Must the environmental impact report for a regional transportation plan include an analysis of the plan’s consistency with the greenhouse gas emission reduction goals reflected in Executive Order No. 5-3-05 to comply with the California Environmental Quality Act?”

Appellate Court Denies Writ Challenging EIR for Expansion of Marin County Landfill

Monday, January 5th, 2015

In an unpublished opinion in No Wetlands Landfill Expansion v. County of Marin, 2014 Cal. App. Unpub. LEXIS 8866, the California Court of Appeal for the First Appellate District denied a petition for a writ of mandate challenging the environmental impact report (EIR) for a proposed landfill expansion in Marin County. The court affirmed in part and reversed in part the trial court decision.

The decision was the court’s second opinion related to the EIR for the 420-acre Redwood Landfill near the Petaluma River. In the previous decision (summary available here: http://www.thomaslaw.com/blog/court-holds-the-integrated-waste-management-act-does-not-vest-a-county-with-any-authority-over-issuance-of-a-solid-waste-facilities-permit-and-therefore-the-county-is-not-the-decisionmaking-body-fo/) the court concluded certification of the EIR was not appealable to the Marin County Board of Supervisors and remanded to the trial court to resolve the challenges to the adequacy of the EIR.

Several environmental and community groups challenged the adequacy of the EIR. First, landfill opponents argued it was improper for Marin County Environmental Health Services (Marin EHS) to consider a nonspecific offsite project alternative. However, the court explained that most of the land in Marin County was unsuitable for an alternative landfill site.  Thus, it was reasonable under the circumstances to include a hypothetical project alternative that demonstrated why an expansion of Redwood Landfill had the least significant environmental impact.

Next, the court concluded the EIR did not improperly defer mitigation measures to address potential sea-level rise and groundwater contamination. As to sea-level rise, the mitigation measure required the landfill developers to prepare a long-term flood-protection plan that took into account the effects of climate change. The court held it was reasonable given the uncertainty of rising sea-levels to not set a specific levee height and instead to re-evaluate the plan every five years.

As to groundwater, one challenged mitigation measure required an analysis of the possibility of leachate contaminating groundwater from the early years of the landfill when operators buried waste in trenches of an unknown depth. The second measure required a plan approved by the Regional Water Quality Control Board if leachates were found. Landfill opponents contended the measures lacked objective criteria. However, the court reasoned the two mitigation measures were part of a larger leachate monitoring system that complied with California Code of Regulations. As a result, the court held the mitigation measures were adequate.

The court next upheld the EIR’s discussion of potential health impacts from air emissions. Landfill opponents contended it was improper for the EIR to jointly consider the larger PM-10 and smaller PM-2.5 particulate matter and to not consider the noncancer health risks from toxic air contaminants. However, despite other authorities requiring alternative methodologies for analysis, this approach was consistent with the CEQA guidelines prepared by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, which were in effect at the time the EIR was prepared.

Lastly, the court held the EIR sufficiently analyzed greenhouse gas emissions. The court rejected the landfill opponents’ argument that Marin EHS was required to consider the cumulative effects on greenhouse gas emissions of landfills on a global scale and not just in Marin County. The court explained this was “entirely unrealistic” and declined to impose such a burden.

The court also upheld the use of the “LandGEM” model to predict emissions from the project. The court emphasized it was not the court’s role to substitute its judgment for the reviewing agency and found there was substantial evidence to support the use of the model. The court also held landfill opponents failed to satisfy their burden of showing the proposed onsite power facility fueled by landfill gas would not offset future greenhouse emissions.

Appellate Court Requires SANDAG Consider Executive Order Emissions Targets in Regional Transportation Plan

Wednesday, December 3rd, 2014

In a split decision in Cleveland National Forest Foundation v. San Diego Association of Governments, 2014 Cal. App. LEXIS 1070, a majority of the three-judge panel of the California Court of Appeal for the Fourth District affirmed a writ of mandate challenging the San Diego Association of Governments’ (SANDAG) environmental review of its 2050 Regional Transportation/Sustainable Communities Strategy (transportation plan).

The court’s decision turned on the significance of the 2005 executive order by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger requiring statewide reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) to 2000 levels by 2010, to 1990 levels by 2020, and to 80 percent below 1990 by 2050. The legislature passed SB 375 in 2008, which directed California Air Resources Board (CARB) to develop regional GHG targets for automobiles and light trucks for 2020 and 2035. SB 375 also required each of California’s eighteen metropolitan planning agencies such as SANDAG to develop a sustainable communities strategy that provides a coordinated, long-term land use and transportation plan to meet the state’s emissions goals.

The programmatic environmental impact report (EIR) for SANDAG’s transportation plan analyzed the GHG impacts against three significance thresholds and considered the plan’s potential GHG impacts in 2020, 2035, and 2050. However, the court held SANDAG was required to analyze the transportation plan’s consistency with the 2005 executive order. The EIR did not reflect SANDAG’s reasonable good faith effort at full disclosure because it ignored the executive order’s role in shaping state climate policy.

The court rejected SANDAG’s argument that it was not required to analyze the executive order because there was no statute or regulation translating the order into scientifically-based emissions targets. Although SANDAG may not have known the specific targets and SANDAG had broad discretion to set select the criteria for determining the significance of the environmental impact, SANDAG knew the transportation plan would lead to an overall increase in GHG emission levels after 2020. Accordingly, SANDAG abused its discretion in not considering consistency with the governor’s executive order.

As to the adequacy of mitigation measures for GHG impacts, the court held that the EIR did not adequately mitigate the significant environmental impacts of the transportation plan. The court found that three feasible mitigation measures included in the EIR did not take concrete steps to reduce emissions and were already incorporated into the plan, which nullified any possible mitigating effect.

The court next considered the respondent’s cross appeals that the trial court declined to consider. The court held the EIR did not adequately consider a reasonable range of project alternatives. While the EIR included seven project alternatives, the alternatives all focused on congestion relief, which only provided a short-term reduction in GHG emissions. Instead, the court stated SANDAG should have considered alternatives for reducing total vehicle miles traveled.

The court also held the air quality analysis in the EIR was inadequate. Although SANDAG argued the air quality analysis was sufficient for a program level EIR, the court reasoned SANDAG could not provide any evidence demonstrating that further analysis of air quality impacts at this stage was infeasible.

Lastly, the court held the EIR did not adequately analyze the impact of the transportation plan on agriculture lands because the methodology in the EIR left too many gaps in the data and produced an unreliable estimate of the amount of existing farmland.

In a strongly-worded dissent, Justice Benke criticized the majority for interfering with the CEQA process by telling a lead agency what it must use as a threshold of significance. According to Justice Benke, the executive order does not unilaterally qualify as a threshold of significance. Justice Benke stated that the majority should have deferred to SANDAG in determining the significance thresholds and explained that “[t]here is no legal support for [the majority’s] action, which strips lead agencies of the discretion vested in them by the Legislature and reposes that discretion in the courts.”  Justice Benke was also critical of the majority’s conclusion that the alternatives analysis was inadequate because he believed the majority was “sub rosa directing SANDAG to shift the emphasis in its plan to mass transportation.”

KEYPOINT

Although the majority did not expressly hold that the GHG emissions targets in the governor’s 2005 executive order established thresholds of significance, the majority clearly stated the executive order formed the state’s “climate change policy.” Accordingly, lead agencies must be mindful to consider the 2005 executive order and its targets in both program- and project- level environmental impact reports.

Addendum Upheld: Amendments to San Jose Airport Master Plan Cleared For Landing

Monday, July 21st, 2014

In Citizens Against Airport Pollution v. City of San Jose (2014) Cal. App. LEXIS 588, the Court of Appeal for the Sixth District upheld the trial court’s denial of a writ of mandate challenging the City of San Jose’s (the City) approval of an addendum to an EIR analyzing the environmental impacts of amendments to San Jose Airport’s Master Plan (Airport Master Plan).

The City began updating the Airport Master Plan in 1988 to accommodate the projected growth at the airport.  The City approved the final environmental impact report (EIR) for the update in 1997.  From 1997 to 2010 eight addenda to the Airport Master Plan EIR were approved, with the eighth addendum considering the impacts changes to the size and location of planned air cargo facilities and modifications to the taxiing area of the runway.

Citizens Against Airport Pollution (CAAP) contended that the City violated the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) in approving the eighth addendum because the amendments to the Airport Master Plan were so significant that they constituted a new project for purposes of CEQA.  CAAP further contended that the 1997 EIR was a program EIR, as opposed to a narrower project EIR, and that a new EIR should be completed.  The court declined to determine whether the 1997 EIR was a project-level EIR or a broader program EIR, but held that there was substantial evidence to support the City’s finding that the amendments to the Airport Master Plan would not have a significant effect on noise, air quality, or the burrowing owl habitat as CAAP contended.

Relying on an analysis in the addendum that showed a decrease in daily aircraft operations and improved airplane technology resulting in quieter aircraft, the court found that there was substantial evidence that the amendments to the Airport Master Plan would not result in significant noise impacts.

Similarly, the projected decrease in aircraft operations resulted in no significant impact to air quality.  CAAP did not dispute the projected decrease in aircraft operations, thus the court found that there was substantial evidence to support the City’s findings that the impact on air quality was sufficiently analyzed in the 1997 EIR.

The court also found that there was substantial evidence to support the City’s findings that the amendments to the Airport Master Plan would not have a significant impact on the burrowing owls nesting in the unpaved portions of the airfield.  The 1997 EIR had concluded that implementation of the Airport Master Plan would impact the burrowing owl, which is a species of concern in California.  However, the EIR also included a Burrowing Owl Management Plan that established protected sections of the airfield and required biologists to monitor the burrowing owls in the area among other measures.  The eighth addendum included mitigation measures that were consistent with the Burrow Owl Management Plan and even provided for the construction of one-way doors to ensure that no burrowing owls would be trapped in their burrows when construction began.  As a result, the court held that the impact on the burrowing owl population at the airport was not substantially different than the impact considered in the 1997 EIR.

The court also rejected CAAP’s argument that a supplemental EIR was required to analyze greenhouse gas emissions.  A 2010 CEQA amendment requires lead agencies to make a “good-faith effort” to estimate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from a project.  (CEQA Guidelines section 15064.4.)  However, CEQA does not require a supplemental EIR unless new information becomes available that was not known when the original EIR was completed.  The court held that the potential impact of greenhouse gas emissions was widely known in 1997 when the EIR was completed and in 2003 when a supplemental EIR was completed.  Therefore, the potential impact of greenhouse gases did not constitute new information and a supplemental EIR was not required.

KEY POINT

Once an EIR is completed for a project, a court applies the substantial evidence standard of review to determining whether project changes require a supplemental EIR.  If the lead agency can show there is substantial evidence to support a finding that there will be no significant impacts, the court will permit an addendum to the original EIR instead of a supplemental EIR.

Trial Court Upholds Approval of Plan Bay Area

Thursday, July 3rd, 2014

On July 2, 2014, Judge Evelio Grillo of the Alameda County Superior Court issued a 30-page decision in Bay Area Citizens v. Assn. of Bay Area Governments, et al (Case No. RG13690631), upholding approval of Plan Bay Area by the Association of Bay Area Governments and Metropolitan Transportation Commission.

Plan Bay Area is the regional transportation plan and sustainable communities strategy for the Bay Area adopted by MTC and ABAG pursuant to SB 375, which establishes a process for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by reducing vehicle miles traveled.  Bay Area Citizens, represented by Pacific Legal Foundation, filed a petition in August, 2013 challenging certification of the environmental impact report prepared for Plan Bay Area under the requirements of the California Environmental Quality Act.

Bay Area Citizens claimed that the Agencies improperly ignored statewide efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through improved fuel technologies and increased vehicle efficiency for cars and light duty trucks in calculating the greenhouse gas emission reductions to be achieved by Plan Bay Area. The court found, however, that the plain language of SB 375 required the Agencies to develop the Plan independent of the reductions attributable to other statewide measures.  Given the emphasis in the statute on regional planning, the court stated that it would be inconsistent to include benefits of statewide initiatives in Plan Bay Area.

Having found that the Agencies properly interpreted the requirements of SB 375, the court rejected Bay Area Citizens’ related arguments challenging the Plan objectives, as well as the analysis of alternatives.  With respect to the Bay Area Citizens’ challenge to the assessment of the No Project Alternative, the court found that, while CEQA “normally” requires use of conditions existing at the time the notice of preparation is filed, this was not a normal situation. SB 375 required the Agencies to develop a plan to achieve the greenhouse gas reduction targets set by the California Air Resources Board, which had used a baseline of 2005. As a result, the court agreed with the MTC’s use of a baseline of 2005 for its analysis of greenhouse gas emissions.

The court also rejected Bay Area Citizens’ argument that Plan Bay Area was flawed because it assumed emission levels would continue to rise in the Bay Area while nationwide data showed emission rates would level off. The court stated this argument improperly assumed the Bay Area would follow the national trend and ignored substantial evidence that emissions would continue to rise in the Bay Area.

Finally, the court found the Agencies had adequately considered an alternative proposed by Bay Area Citizens during the administrative process. The draft EIR included analysis of five alternatives, including alternatives from other advocacy groups that incorporated many of the same elements as the Bay Area Citizens’ alternative. Furthermore, the proposed alternative assumed it could meet the greenhouse gas emission reduction targets in conjunction with other statewide initiatives, which the court found SB 375 did not allow. As CEQA only requires an analysis of feasible alternatives, the Bay Area Citizens’ proposed alternative was properly excluded from the EIR’s list of alternatives.